Main Organiser

Julius Centre University of Malaya

Co-organiser

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malay

Supported by

University of Malaya

INFLUENCING FACTORS FOR HOUSEHOLD WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN REDUCING DIARRHOEA FOR RESOURCE LIMITED AREA

Author

Zin TZ

Institution

University Malaysia Sabah

Abstract

Objectives: Identify and explore household water treatment in preventing diarrhoea and health impact.

Methods: Household water, sanitation, hygiene and diarrhoea related studies between 1990-2011 from appropriate literature has been collected, reviewed, collated, and reported for all relevant findings.

Results: The effect of water quality on diarrhoea prevention (15-17%) by Esrey 1991 was focused on water treatment at source of distribution. But contamination can occur during storage, collection, and even at point-of- use. Evidence was highlighted by Fewtrell 2005, Waddington 2009 “34-44% reduction in diarrhoea” from point of use interventions, and Caincross 63% reduction by house connection water. WHO reported that point- of- use water treatment (household-based) is the most cost-effective for diarrhoea prevention. The reported cost per DALY averted by chlorination was US$53, solar disinfection US$61, and source- based interventions US$123. In water quality improvement, taste and quality, appropriateness to both emergency and non-emergency, equity in access and water collection time, adequate storage; duration and type of container (1-2 days storage increase tenfold higher cholera, wide- mouth and open storage container increase faecal coliform and diarrhoea) and affordable cost are additional points to be considered.

Conclusion: Household water treatment is most cost effective in preventing diarrhoea. Furthermore, social marketing through public private partnership is recommended for maximum utilization within community.