Main Organiser

Julius Centre University of Malaya

Co-organiser

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malay

Supported by

University of Malaya

THE BCDE (BREAST CANCER DELAY EXPLANATORY) MODEL. A GROUNDED EXPLANATORY MODEL TO WHY WOMEN PRESENT WITH ADVANCED BREAST CANCER

Author

Nur Aishah Taib 1 , Cheng Har Yip 1 , Wah Yun Low 2

Institution

1 Department of Surgery
2 Medical Education and Research Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract

Objectives: The prevalence of advanced presentation remains a large obstacle to achieving lower mortality rates. This study provides an explanatory model to explain reasons why women present their breast cancer at an advanced stage

Methods: Purposive sampling of 19 breast cancer patients presenting with delayed treatment and/or advanced cancer diagnosed within two years at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. In-depth interviews were conducted using a topic guide. The audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim. NVivo 8 qualitative software was utilised. A constructivist grounded theory method was utilised.

Results: Four main constructs in the BCDE model emerged from the data. The first two were; poor knowledge of disease and treatment outcomes. Women perceived caring but non-accountable alternative treatments and there was evidence of a finances and poor social support. Finally, the roles patients play in decision making. There was reliance on significant others to sanction and direct their actions.

Conclusion: The BCDE model explains why women present with advanced breast cancer. This model can be used to plan health education interventions in public health and in the clinical setting.