Main Organiser

Julius Centre University of Malaya


Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malay

Supported by

University of Malaya



Adegboye OA, Adegboye A, Kotze D


American University of Afghanistan, Kabul: University of Ilorin teaching hospital, Nigeria; University of the Western Cape, South Africa


This study sought to evaluate the success of different intervention programs on immunization in Nigeria from 1990 to 2008. Vaccination is a very effective way of eradicating the spread of a large number of preventable diseases, such as small pox, measles, yellow fever, and polio, to mention a few. The Nigeria expanded program on immunization (EPI) was introduced in 1979 and designed to reach children from birth to two years of age and all pregnant women. The safety of pregnant women and their babies depends on the success of the program. The decline in the attainment of universal child immunization target of about 80% in 1990 to about 11% fully immunized children by the end of 2007 can be attributed to a number of reasons; political will, poor service delivery, culture and beliefs, and availability of vaccines.

In order to evaluate the impact of these programs, and assess their coverage and reach; we performed a multi-year trend analysis on data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) from 1990 through 2008. Multi-level analysis was used to identify associated factors for partial or non-immunization of babies by their mothers. The associated factors for failure to immunize their children were explored. Alternating logistic regression (ALR) analysis was carried out on children nested within mother nested within the community.

Alternating logistic regression allows for the investigation of the effect of mother and community level characteristics. Coverage- evaluation was done by spatial analysis to assess the geographical variations in the reach of immunization.